Psychoanalytic Interpretive Strategy of Viewing ii. Women-Fetishized as Objects to be Looked At iv. Neo-femininity in l'ecriture feminine V. Dai Chun-fang's Willow Dreams of Plum i. Adapted from the Kunqu Peony Pavilion ii. Love and Miracles-Revive from Death iii. Performativity-Gender Masquerade iv. Gender as a Social Gestus VI. Wu Xin-chu's Slut Antigone i. Gender and Politics ii.
Feminist Postcolonial Discourse iii. Intercultural Elements VII. Intercultural Theater i. Richard Schechner's Oresteia in Taiwan i. Schechner's "The Culture of Choice" ii. The Oriental Women in Tsou Oedipus ii. Different Debates of the Intercultural Critique i.
Eugenio Barba's "Pre-expressive" principles ii. Universal Performance iii. Rustom Bharucha v. Peter Brook V.
Alternative Theater in Taiwan: Feminist and Intercultural Approaches - Google книги
East vs. West i.
- Alternative media.
- Karteninterpretation - Kartenblatt Freiburg i. Br. – Nord, Nr. 7912 (1:50.000) (German Edition).
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Feminized East in the West Male's Gaze ii. Indigenous Jocasta iii.
Orientalism: Masculine West v. Feminine East VI. Woman-A fiction of Women Created by the Patriarchy ii. A Deconstructed Postmodern Musical iii. Gender is a Stylized Repetition of Acts iv. Cultural Tensions ii. Three Parallel Plots of the Journey to the West iii. The Symbol of the Dragon II. Memory, Imagination and Reality ii.
Some examples include the counter-culture zines of the s, ethnic and indigenous media such as the First People's television network in Canada later rebranded Aboriginal Peoples Television Network , and more recently online open publishing journalism sites such as Indymedia. While mainstream mass media , on the whole, "represent government and corporate interests",  alternative media tend to be "non-commercial projects that advocate the interests of those excluded from the mainstream", for example, the poor, political and ethnic minorities, labor groups, and LGBT identities.
Alternative media challenge the dominant beliefs and values of a culture and have been described as "counter-hegemonic" by adherents of Antonio Gramsci 's theory of cultural hegemony. However, since the definition of alternative media as merely counter to the mainstream is limiting, some approaches to the study of alternative media also address the question of how and where these media are created, as well as the dynamic relationship between the media and the participants that create and use them.
There are various definitions of "alternative media. Christian Fuchs also argues that alternative media must have four distinct properties. The first being that the audience of these media must be involved in the creation of what is put out in alternative media. Approaches to the academic study of alternative media attempt to understand the ways in which these media are significant, each emphasizing a different aspect of media, including the role of the public sphere, social movements, and the participation by communities that create the media. One way of understanding alternative media is to consider their role in the process of democratic communication.
It is essential that the dialogue in this public sphere occurs outside the control of any authority so that citizens can exchange ideas as equals. In Habermas's idea of the public sphere, participation is open to everyone, all participants are considered equal, and any issue can be raised for debate. In light of this social inequality, philosopher Nancy Fraser argues for the importance of multiple independent public spheres, in which members of subordinated groups can first deliberate their issues and concerns among themselves and later assert those issues into the larger public sphere.
The alternative media associated with these counter-public spheres are critical in developing the needs and identity of the group and in challenging the larger dominant public sphere. A feminist counter-public sphere is, for example, responsible for circulating the view that women's issues such as domestic abuse and reproductive rights are deserving of debate in the larger public sphere. Social movements are a type of collective action. They involve large, sometimes informal, groups or organizations which focus on specific political or social issues and instigate, resist or undo the social change.
Social movement media is how social movements use media, and oftentimes, due to the nature of social movements, that media tends to be an alternative. Communication is vital to the success of social movements. Research shows that social movements experience significant difficulties communicating through mainstream media because the mainstream media often systematically distort, stigmatize, or ignore social movement viewpoints. As a result, social movements often turn to alternative media forms and practices in order to more effectively achieve their goals.
An example of how the mainstream media problematically covers social movements is the Occupy movement , which began with Occupy Wall Street in September The Occupy movement protests against social and economic inequality around the world, its primary goal being to make the economic and political relations in all societies less vertically hierarchical and more flatly distributed. Local groups often have different focuses, but among the movement's prime concerns deal with how large corporations and the global financial system control the world in a way that disproportionately benefits a minority, undermines democracy, and is unstable.
In comparing the mainstream news coverage of the Occupy movement against coverage from alternative press several trends emerge. First, mainstream media used confusion over the event as the dominant frame while alternative media focused on what the demonstrators were actually trying to accomplish. Second, the mainstream media placed the protesters at fault of any violence while the alternative media focused on the brutality of the police and their violent acts on the peaceful protesters.
For more information about social movements, and alternative media, see Social movement theory.
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Alternative media are activist. Social movements in areas such as human rights , the environmental movement , and civil rights produce alternative media to further their goals, spread awareness, and inspire participation and support. WITNESS is a human rights non-profit organization and its mission is to partner with on-the-ground organizations to support the documentation of human rights violations and their consequences, in order to further public engagement, policy change, and justice.
They rely on video recordings using technology such as handheld camcorders and smartphones to capture the world's attention and viscerally communicate human rights abuses. They have documented human rights abuses from the police in the favelas of Brazil, children soldiers in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, human trafficking in Brazil and the United States, and many other human rights issues, all through the use of alternative media.
An example of an environment movement using alternative media is the group, Green Peace. Greenpeace is a non-governmental environmental organization whose goal is to "ensure the ability of the Earth to nurture life in all its diversity and focuses its campaigning on worldwide issues such as climate change, deforestation, overfishing, commercial whaling, genetic engineering, and anti-nuclear issues.
It uses direct action, lobbying, and research to achieve its goals, as well as alternative media. They use online tactics such as podcasts and blogs  as well as performance art. Alternative media tactics used by SNCC included establishing a dedicated Communication Section which included a photography arm, its own printing press which published its newsletter the Student Voice , published publicity materials, and created an alternative wire press. Alternative media have frequently been studied as a manifestation of participatory culture , in which citizens do not act as consumers only, but as contributors or producers as well.
By opening up access to media production, participatory culture is believed to further democracy, civic engagement, and creative expression. Participatory culture pre-dates the Internet. Amateur Press Associations are a form of participatory culture which emerged late in the 19th century. Members of such associations typeset and print their own publications, which are mailed through a network of subscribers. Zines , talk radio shows, and group projects also preceded blogs, podcasts, wikis, and social networks. With web services such as Wikipedia, Tumblr , Imgur , Reddit , Vine , and YouTube , all of which allow users to distribute original content, making media production more participatory.
Alternative media are also created by participatory journalism as citizens play an active role in collecting, reporting, analyzing, and disseminating news and information.